Protocol No. 4 to the 1950 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, entered into force May 2, 1968.

The Governments signatory hereto, being Members of the Council of Europe,

Being resolved to take steps to ensure the collective enforcement of certain rights and
freedoms other than those already included in Section I of the Convention for the
Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed at Rome on 4th
November 1950 (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention") and in Articles 1 to 3 of
the First Protocol to the Convention, signed at Paris on 20th March 1952,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

No one shall be deprived of his liberty merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a
contractual obligation.

Article 2

1. Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the
right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

2. Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.

3. No restricions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are
in accordance with law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of
national security or public safety, for the maintenance of "ordre public", for the
prevention of crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the
rights and freedoms of others.

4. The rights set forth in paragraph 1 may also be subject, in particular areas, to
restrictions imposed in accordance with law and justified by the public interests in a
democratic society.

Article 3

1. No one shall be expelled, by means either of an individual or of a collective
measure, from the territory of the State of which he is a national.

2. No one shall be deprived of the right to enter the territory of the State of which he is
a national.

Article 4

Collective expulsion of aliens is prohibited.

Article 5

1. Any High Contracting Party may, at the time of signature or ratification of this
Protocol, or at any time thereafter, communicate to the Secretary-General of the
Council of Europe a declaration stating the extent to which it undertakes that the
provisions of this Protocol shall apply to such of the territories for the international
relations of which it is responsible as are named therein.

2. Any High Contracting Party which has communicated a declaration in virtue of the
preceding paragraph may, from time to time, communicate a further declaration
modifying the terms of any former declaration or terminating the application of the
provisions of this Protocol in respect of any territory.

3. A declaration made in accordance with this Article shall be deemed to have been
made in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 63 of the Convention.

4. The territory of any State to which this Protocol applies by virtue of ratification or
acceptance by that State, and each territory to which this Protocol is applied by virtue
of a declaration by that State under this Article, shall be treated as separate territories
for the purpose of the references in Articles 2 and 3 to the territory of a State.

Article 6

1. As between the High Contracting Parties the provisions of Articles 1 to 5 of this
Protocol shall be regarded as additional Articles to the Convention, and all the
provisions of the Convention shall apply accordingly.

2. Nevertheless, the right of individual recourse recognised by a declaration made
under Article 25 of the Convention, or the acceptance of the compulsory jurisdiction of
the Court by a declaration made under Article 46 of the Convention, shall not be
effective in relation to this Protocol unless the High Contracting Party concerned has
made a statement recognizing such right, or accepting such jurisdiction, in respect of
all or any of Articles 1 to 4 of the Protocol.

Article 7

1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Members of the Council of Europe
who are the signatories of the Convention; it shall be ratified at the same time as or
after the ratification of the Convention. It shall enter into force after the deposit of five
instruments of ratification. As regards any signatory ratifying subsequently, the
Protocol shall enter into force at the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

2. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the
Council of Europe, who will notify all Members of the names of those who have

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this

DONE at Strasbourg this 16th day of September 1963, in English and in French, both texts
being equally authoritative, in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the
Council of Europe. The Secretary-General shall transmit certified copies to each of the signatory