Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms,  entered into force May 18, 1954.

The Governments signatory hereto, being Members of the Council of Europe,

Being resolved to take steps to ensure the collective enforcement of certain rights and
freedoms other than those already included in Section I of the Convention for the
Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed at Rome on 4th
November, 1950 (hereinafter referred to as 'the Convention'),

Have agreed as follows:


Every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions.
No one shall be deprived of his possessions except in the public interest and subject
to the conditions provided for by law and by the general principles of international law.

The preceding provisions shall not, however, in any way impair the right of a State to
enforce such laws as it deems necessary to control the use of property in accordance
with the general interest or to secure the payment of taxes or other contributions or


No person shall be denied the right to education. In the exercise of any functions
which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the
right of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own
religions and philosophical convictions.


The High Contracting Parties undertake to hold free elections at reasonable intervals
by secret ballot, under conditions which will ensure the free expression of the opinion
of the people in the choice of the legislature.


Any High Contracting Party may at the time of signature or ratification or at any time
thereafter communicate to the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe a
declaration stating the extent to which it undertakes that the provisions of the present
Protocol shall apply to such of the territories for the international relations of which it is
responsible as are named therein.

Any High Contracting Party which has communicated a declaration in virtue of the
preceding paragraph may from time to time communicate a further declaration
modifying the terms of any former declaration or terminating the application of the
provisions of this Protocol in respect of any territory.

A declaration made in accordance with this article shall be deemed to have been
made in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 63 of the Convention.


As between the High Contracting Parties the provisions of Articles 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this
Protocol shall be regarded as additional articles to the convention and all the
provisions of the Convention shall apply accordingly.


This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Members of the Council of Europe,
who are the signatories of the Convention; it shall be ratified at the same time as or
after the ratification of the Convention. It shall enter into force after the deposit of ten
instruments of ratification. As regards any signatory ratifying subsequently, the
Protocol shall enter into force at the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the
Council of Europe, who will notify all the Members of the names of those who have

Done at Paris on the 20th day of March 1952, In English and French, both text being equally
authentic, in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Council of
Europe. The Secretary-General shall transmit certified copies to each of the signatory